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户外频道 > 登山首页 > 山峰资料 > 8000米级别山峰 > 乔格里峰 > 相关资料--简介、地理、气候、攀登时间、攀登历史等

乔戈里峰的历史背景


  In 1860, Captain Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen, of the Survey of India, went to the Baltistan area and surveyed the famous Shigar and Saltoro valleys. This greatly contributed to the knowledge of the area. He was an officer in the 24th Foot Battalion, later the South Wales Borderers, and had also served in the Second Anglo- Burmese War in 1852. Earlier, he had joined Montgomerie at a survey station in Kashmir in 1857. He also surveyed the Kajnag range in southern Kashmir and was the first to put Gulmarg on the map. In 1858-59, he surveyed eastern Kashmir including Jammu. In 1861, he started from Skardu and entered Braldu valley from Skoro-La (5,043m). He then climbed and surveyed the Chogo-lungma, Kero Lungma, Biafo and Panmah glaciers. It was from Kero Lungma that Godwin-Austen climbed the Nushik pass (4,990m/1 6,371 ft) and is stated to have entered the 53-km-long Hispar glacier. He was perhaps the first European to reach it. He, however, did not survey it. He was considered as one of the greatest mountaineers of the day, had great power of endurance and was immensely brave. It is a myth that the K2 peak, which was erroneously called Godwin-Austen peak, was discovered by him. It is, however, a fact that he explored the gateway to K2 (the Baltoro glacier), along with famous glaciers including Godwin-Austen glacier. This was indeed his outstanding contribution to the geography of the area.

  1860年,印度测量部门亨利·哈佛沙姆·戈德温-奥斯仃队长到巴拉提斯坦地区对著名的施迦和萨尔托洛山谷进行勘察。

这对了解这个地区具有极大的贡献。他是第24步兵营的军官,之后居住在南威尔士边境地区(即威尔士南部和英格兰接壤边境),他也曾在1852年第二次英缅战争中服过役。早在1857年,他曾加入到蒙特哥摩利中尉在克什米尔的勘察站。他也曾勘察过克什米尔南部的卡吉纳山脉,并首次将古尔马格峰画在地图上。1858年至1859年,他对包括查谟在内的克什米尔东部地区进行勘察。1861年,他从斯卡都出发,从海拔5,043米的斯科罗拉峰进入巴拉尔度山谷。然后他爬上乔戈-兰马,科罗兰马,比亚弗和潘马等冰川进行勘测。就是从科罗兰马冰川戈德温-奥斯仃爬上了海拔4,990米(16,371英尺)的努什克山口,据说还曾进入了长达53公里的希斯巴冰川。他很可能就是到达这一冰川的首位欧洲人。然而他并没有对这一冰川进行勘测。他具有强大的忍耐力和巨大的胆识,被誉为当时最伟大的登山家之一。被错误称为戈德温-奥斯仃峰的乔戈里峰是他发现的,这真是荒诞的说法。然而事实上,他探测到了通往乔戈里峰的门户—巴尔托洛冰川,和其他包括戈德温-奥斯仃冰川在内的一些著名冰川。

  Another famous explorer of the area was Francis Younghusband (later knighted), a noted soldier and thrill-seeker. Showing his courage and tenacity in 1887, he crossed the Gobi desert from Peking and entered India by crossing Mustagh pass. It was during this journey that he saw K2. In this way he was the first European to cross Mustagh pass. He was also the first European to set eyes on K2 from the northern side. His guide on this inward journey was a former resident of Askole village, situated at the start of Baltoro glacier, who had been living on the other side of the mountain for a very long time. When he entered the village of Askole with his guide, Younghusband was extended due courtesies. His guide was, however, looked down upon because he had shown a foreigner the possible route of invasion. Subsequently in 1903-4, Sir Francis Younghusband became the head of the famous mission to Tibet.

  另一个后来被授予爵位的探险家法兰西斯·扬哈斯本,是个著名的士兵和惊险小说迷。1887年,他显示了他的勇气和固执,从北京出发穿越了戈壁沙漠,从马兹他山口进入印度。就在旅途中,他首次见到了乔戈里峰。他是以这种方式穿越马兹他山口的首位欧洲人,也是首位从北面看到乔戈里峰的欧洲人。他返程的向导以前曾住在位于巴尔托洛冰川起点处的阿斯科尔村庄,在很长时间里曾一直住在山的另一边。当他和向导进入阿斯科尔村庄时,扬哈斯本被当地村民致以充分的礼节。然而他的向导则被蔑视,因为他已向外国人指出了可能的入侵路线。随后在1903至1904年,法兰西斯·扬哈斯本爵士成为了著名的驻藏代表团首脑。

  It was probably for the first time in 1902 that an organized expedition of Oscar J.L. Eckenstein traveled to K-2 from Baltoro glacier. The expedition was without any guide. Its aim was to explore approaches to the mountain and possibly have a try on the peak. It was, however, harsh weather which prevented it from attempting the peak. The party however collected useful information about the upper Godwin-Austen glacier which was used as a stepping stone by expeditions in later years. Two members of the expedition - one a Swiss by the name of Dr. Jules Jacot Guillarmot and the other an Austrian by the name of Dr. V. Wesseley - succeeded in reaching 6523 meters (21,400ft) on the north-eastern ridge of K-2. The party also ascended Skyang La (6150 meters) to ascertain climbing possibilities of Skyang Kangri peak (7544 meters). Eckenstein was the first mountaineer who applied the principles of engineering to mountaineering and its equipment in Pakistan.

  1902年,奥斯卡·J.L.艾肯斯坦率领的一个有组织的探险队可能是第一次从巴尔托洛冰川向乔戈里峰进发的。探险队没有雇佣任何向导。它的目标就是勘探出通往乔戈里峰的途径,可能还要尝试登顶。然而,恶劣的气候使得探险队无法尝试登顶,他们却收集到了关于戈德温-奥斯仃冰川地表层的有用信息,这些信息在随后几年里被探险队当作跳板加以使用。探险队有两位队员—瑞士人朱利斯·加科特·加勒莫特博士和奥地利人V.威斯利博士成功抵达乔戈里峰东北山脊海拔6523米(21,400英尺)的地方。探险队还攀登了海拔6150米的斯开昂拉峰以确定攀登海拔7544米的斯开昂堪格里峰的可能性。艾肯斯坦是在巴基斯坦把工程学原理运用到登山运动和装备上的首位登山家。

  In 1909, a big Italian expedition under the leadership of resolute Luigi Amadeo Giuseppe (Duke of Abruzzi) the grandson of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy reconnoitred K2. Its members produced a very good account of the expedition with photographs and accurate maps of Baltoro area. The Duke, however, rejected the southern and western ridges of the mountain for a climb. His party attempted the peak from the south-east ridge-which later came to be known as Abruzzi ridge - but could not proceed beyond 5560 meters because of problems with porters. The party, however, carried out a thorough reconnaissance of K2 from south to north-east. Vittono Sella, a photographer and a climber, accompanied the Duke on this expedition. Sella pass, near Godwin-Austen glacier, is named after him.

  1909年,一支大型的探险队在意大利国王维多·艾蒙纽尔二世的孙子,性格坚决的刘易奇·阿玛迪奥·吉塞普(阿布拉兹公爵)的率领下对乔戈里峰进行勘探。探险队成员制定出了非常棒的附带有巴尔托洛地区相片和精确地图的探险报告书。然而公爵反对攀登南部和西部山脊。他的探险队尝试从东南山脊(即后来闻名于世的阿布拉兹山脊)登顶,但是在海拔5560米以上的地方,由于挑夫的问题没办法继续攀登。然而探险队从南到东北对乔戈里峰完成了彻底的勘探。探险队里陪同公爵来的还有登山家兼摄影师维托里奥·萨拉。戈德温-奥斯仃冰川附近的萨拉山口就是以他的名字命名的。


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